- Pest and weed control: Many bird species, such as the ones listed in this proposed Order, are also beneficial to plants and crops by controlling pests on agricultural land since a large percentage of their summer diet is composed of crop-damaging insects (i.e. caterpillars, grasshoppers, ants, wasps, flies, beetles, mayflies): (footnote 22)
(a) For example, the McCown’s Longspur feeds their young almost exclusively grasshoppers (90% of their diet). The Lark Bunting also relies heavily on grasshoppers for their diet. These species could act as a pest control. In the past, there have been programs with the federal government,(footnote 23) in collaboration with academia and private industry, with extensive budgets for projects to encourage non-pesticide alternatives for grasshopper control in Alberta. This indicates there is a value to the agricultural industry of controlling the grasshopper population.
- Existence value: Several studies estimate willingness to pay values for the preservation of iconic or charismatic species, concluding that rare species generally attract higher values than non-rare ones, and thus provide larger social benefits. A key meta-analysis (footnote 24) on threatened and endangered species has found that U.S. households are willing to pay, on average, between $24.81 and $133.57 per household per year to avoid the loss of one iconic bird species. These studies may be indicative of the value that Canadian individuals or households place on the species in this proposed Order.
(a) One study (footnote 25) estimated that an average household in the Netherlands is willing to pay the equivalent of $24.70 annually for the protection of endangered migratory birds.
- Co-benefits: Protection of one species can also provide additional protection of another species or valuable ecosystem. For example, the Louisiana Waterthrush requires an area-specific habitat that is especially pristine, with high fish abundance and high ecological status for anglers. Lark Bunting and McCown’s Longspurs share native grassland habitat with multiple other wildlife species. The protection measures put in place to protect these two birds will benefit other species who share the same habitat.
Finally, there is also an option value associated with these species, i.e. Canadian residents and firms may hold a value associated with the preservation of Canadian genetic information that may be used in the future for biological, medicinal, genetic engineering and other applications. Economic theory also suggests there is a benefit to erring on the side of avoiding an irreversible outcome (i.e. extinction).(footnote 26)
Manitoba Habitat and Heritage Corporation
The benefit to society of the quarry wetland area as it is outweighs the small cost of hauling that fill to the dump, other RM owned lands, or renting land to store it on nearby, where it can be retrieved as needed in time.
Dumping done by the RM will cause other individuals to follow suit and turn the area into an unsupervised dumping site for household and other waste. The damage of these actions would not be limited to its effects on the wetland and local wildlife, but to the aquifer in the area, as the water in the old quarry is likely a part of that system, and will serve as a conduit to contaminate area wells, and the aquifer as a whole. The cost of that kind of damage is in a different ballpark than whatever we are talking about with respect to the existing wetland loss.
Manitoba Conservation List of Endangered Species – BOLD TYPE indicates sighting at LMP.
Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii)
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia)
Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus)
Dusky Dune Moth (Copablepharon longipenne)
Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis)
Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis)
Gold-edged Gem (Schinia avemensis)
Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea)
Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis)
Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus)
Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)
Mapleleaf Mussel (Quadrula quadrula)
Northern Long-eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis)
Pale Yellow Dune Moth (Copablepharon grandis)
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)
Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)
Poweshiek Skipperling (Oarisma poweshiek)
Prairie Skink (Eumeces septentrionalis)
Red Knot rufa subspecies (Calidris canutus rufa)
Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea)
Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)
Whooping Crane (Grus americana)
Uncas Skipper (Hesperia uncas)
Verna's Flower Moth (Schinia verna)
White Flower Moth (Schinia bimatris)
Boreal Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)
Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagic)
Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis)
Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)
Dakota Skipper (Hesperia dacotae)
Golden-winged Warble (Vermivora chrysoptera)
Great Plains Toad (Bufo cognatus) - french version
Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus)
Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi)
Ottoe Skipper (Hesperia ottoe)
Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus)
Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)
Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii)
Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)
Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus)
Western Hognose Snake (Heterodon nasicus)
Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido)
Grizzly Or Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)
Kit or Swift Fox (Vulpes velox)
Long-Billed Curlew (Numenius americanus)
Muskox (Ovibos moschatus)
Plains Bison (Bison bison bison)
Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)
Riding's Satyr (Neominois ridingsii)
Gastony's Cliffbrake (Pellaea gastonyi)
Gattinger's Agalinis (Agalinis gattingeri)
Great Plains Ladies'-Tresses (Spiranthes magnicamporum)
Rough Agalinis (Agalinis aspera)
Smooth Goosefoot (Chenopodium subglabrum)
Small White Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium candidum) –
Western Ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata)
Western Prairie Fringed-orchid (Platanthera praeclara)
Buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides)
Culver's-root (Veronicastrum virginicum) - french version
Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)
Hairy Prairie-Clover (Dalea villosa)
Riddell's Goldenrod (Solidago riddellii)
Western Silvery Aster (Symphyotrichum sericeum)
Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis)
Bill 7 : THE SUSTAINABLE WATERSHEDS ACT (VARIOUS ACTS AMENDED)
The Lake Winnipeg Foundation and International Institute for Sustainable Development say they were encouraged last June when the province committed in principle to a "no net loss of wetland benefits" and passed the Sustainable Watersheds Act, or Bill 7.
3rd Session, 41st Legislature
This HTML version is provided for ease of use and is based on the bilingual version that was distributed in the Legislature after First Reading.
Restoring wetland as condition of issuing licence
5.1(1) Before the minister issues a licence that authorizes activities that would result in the loss or alteration of a prescribed class of wetland, the applicant must have taken one of the actions specified in subsection (2) to ensure that there is no net loss of wetland benefits.